white box testing

What is white box testing?


What is white box testing?

Levels Applicable to White-Box Testing

white box testing example

Uses of the white box in Software Engineering

Levels of White-Box Testing

Working Process of White-Box Testing

Advantages of White box testing

Disadvantages of White box testing



white box testing

What is white box testing?

This type of testing is also called “clear box testing”, “Open box testing”, structural testing, transparent box testing, code-based testing, and glass box testing. White-box testing is a testing of the internal structure, design, and coding of a software solution.

In this methodology, the code is visible to the tester. Its main focus remains on verifying the flow of inputs and outputs through the application. It focuses on the improvement of design and usability. It also strengthens security. White-box testing is performed by the developers.

Levels of White Box Testing

This method is applicable to the following levels of software testing:

  1. Unit testing:

This testing is used for testing the paths within a unit.

  1. Integration testing:

This testing is for testing paths between units.

  1. System testing:

System testing is for testing paths between subsystems.

Read about: Black box testing

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Why it is named as White-Box Testing

It is named as white-box testing because of the see-through box concept. The clear box symbolizes the ability to see through the software’s outer shell into its inner working.

In the same way, the black box, in the “Black box testing” symbolizes not being able to see the internal working of the software. White-box testing involves the testing of the software code for the following given below:

  • Internal security holes
  • It helps to flow the specific inputs with code
  • Broke or poorly structured paths in the coding processes.
  • Expected outputs
  • It tests each statement, function and objects, individual.
  • The functionality of conditional loops

The testing is done at system, integration, and unit levels. The basic goal of the white box testing is to verify the working flow of an application. It tests a series of predefined inputs against expected or desired outputs. If a specific input does not result in the expected output, you have encountered an error.

Examples of White box testing

A tester or a developer study the implementation code of a certain field on a webpage. He determines all the legal and illegal (valid and invalid) inputs. He then verifies the outputs against the expected outcomes, which can also be determined by studying the implementation code.

Uses of the white box in Software Engineering

It is also called glass box testing. White box testing techniques analyze:

  • Internal structures
  • Used data structures
  • Internal designs
  • Code structure
  • Working of the software


Working Process of White-Box Testing

The working process of white box testing in software engineering involves the following steps:

  1. Input:
  • Functional specification
  • Requirements
  • Source code
  • Design documents


  1. Processing:
  • Performance
  • Performing risk analysis


  1. Proper test planning:
  • Design test cases to cover entire code
  • Execute rinse repeat until error-free software is reached
  • Results are communicated


  1. Output:
  • Final report preparation
  • Testing entire process


Testing techniques for White box 

The following are some testing techniques.

  1. Statement coverage

These techniques reverse all statements at least once. Each line of code is tested. In the case of a flow chart, each node is traversed at least once. All lines of code are covered. This helps in pointing out faulty code.

  1. Branch coverage:

This technique designs test cases. Each branch from all decision points is traversed at least once. In the case of a flow chart, all edges are traversed at least once.

  • Conditional coverage:

All individual conditions are covered in this technique. It is shown in the following example:

  1. READ X, Y
  2. IF(X==0 II Y==0)
  3. PRINT ‘0’
  4. Multiple condition coverage

All possible combinations of possible outcomes of conditions are tested at least once, in this technique.

What is white box testing



Advantages of White box testing

See below advantages of testing

  • The testing commences at an earlier stage.
  • GUI is not needed to be available.
  • It gives more possibility of covering most paths.
  • It allows finding hidden bugs
  • It allows finding internal errors
  • It checks and works with internal functionality
  • It helps to find issues
  • It helps to optimize code to adopt different techniques

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Disadvantages of White box testing

Here below you can see. These are some disadvantages of testing.

  • Tests can be very complex.
  • It requires highly skilled resources.
  • A thorough knowledge of programming and implementation is needed.
  • If implementation changes, test script maintenance can be a burden.
  • This testing method may not readily be available as it’s tied to an application being tested.
  • It requires a skilled tester
  • It is difficult to find hidden errors
  • It cannot look into every bit of code

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