Types of databases

What are Types of databases?


What is data?

What is a database?

Types of databases

What is DBMS?

Types of databases Management System

Types of databases


Types of databases


What is data? Types of databases

It is a collection of raw material/facts and figures. Data is meaningless unless it is processed. In simple words, data is a fact related to any object in consideration.

For example:

name, age, height, gender, ID etc are some data related to some humans.

What is a database?

DB stands for a database. It is an organized collection of data. It is an electronic system and allows the data to be accessed, manipulated and updated easily.

Typically, a database stores the data in a tabular format. The architecture of a database may be external, conceptual or internal. The external level deals with the way in which every end-user type comprehends the organization of its corresponding relevant data in the DB.

The conceptual level unifies the different external views into a defined global view. The Internal level specifies the performance, cost, scalability, and other operational matters.

A simple definition of a database:

A database is an electronic system. It makes it possible to access, manipulate, and update the data very easily. The database is used by different organizations for storing, managing, and retrieving information. DBMS (Database management system) is used to manage the database.

Some common examples of the database are as follows:

  • An online telephone directory uses a database to store data like phone numbers and contact details etc.
  • The electricity service provider uses a database to manage data like billing, client-related issues, to handle faults of data, etc.
  • Facebook needs a database to store information like members, their friends, messages and a lot more.

DBMS: Database Management System

DBMS is a collection of programs. These programs enable users to access databases, manipulate data, and representation of data. It plays a vital role in the control of accessing the database. Database management systems are not new concepts. They were first implemented in the 1960s. The first DBMS in history was IDS (Integrated Data Store) by Charles Bachman’s.

The following diagram shows how the DBMS family got evolved with time. Here is a description of the evolution of DBMS categories.

Types of databases Management System:

The four major Types of databases Management systems are given in detail.

  1. Hierarchical DBMS
  2. Network DBMS
  3. Relational DBMS
  4. Object-Oriented Relation DBMS


  1. Hierarchical DBMS

This is a type of DBMS. It employs the “Parent-child” relationship of storing data. This type is rarely used these days. Its structure is the same as a tree with nodes. Its nodes represent records and its branches represent fields. The window registry is an example of a hierarchical database. This example is used in window XP.

  1. Network DBMS

The network database supports many-to-many relations. This results in a complicated database structure. The network model is implemented by the RDM server. RDM Server is an example of network DBMS.

  1. Relational DBMS

This is another type of database management system. It defines database relationships in the form of tables. The table is also known as a relation. It does not support many-to-many relationships. It has predefined data types that they can support. This is the most commonly used type. It is popular in the market. MySQL, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server databases are examples of relational DBMS.

  1. Object-Oriented Relation DBMS

This type of DBMS supports the storage of new data types. The data is stored in the form of objects. The objects have attributes. Methods define what to do with the data. An example of object-oriented relation DBMS is PostgreSQL.

Types of databases

The following are the Types of databases according to the content type. This content may be:

  • Bibliographic
  • Numeric
  • Full text
  • Images

In computing, a database is classified according to its organizational approach. There are different types of databases ranging from prevalent approach to a distributed database, cloud database, graph database, or NoSQL database.


Types of database

Types of databases

  1. Relational database

The relational database is invented by E.F.Codd. It was invented at IBM in 1970. It is a tabular database. In this database, data is defined so that it can be recognized ad accessed in a number of different ways.

This DB is made of a set of tables with data that fits into a predefined category. All the tables have at least one data category in a column. Each row in a table has certain data instances for the categories which are defined in the column.

For a relational database, SQL (Structural Query Language) is the standard user and application program interface. This type of DB is easy to extend. A new category of data can be added after the original database creation. In this process, it does not require the modification of all other existing applications.

  1. Distributed database

In this type portions of the DB are stored in multiple physical locations. The processing is replicated among different points in a network.

This DB can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. The physical locations in a homogeneous distributed database system have underlying hardware. It runs the same operating system and database applications.  In a heterogeneous distributed database, the hardware, operating systems or database applications may be different at each of the locations.

  1. Cloud database

Cloud database has been optimized for a virtualized environment, either in the public cloud, private cloud, or hybrid cloud.

It provides facilities like the ability to pay for storage capacity and bandwidth on a per-user basis. This DB provides scalability on demand along with high availability. It also gives enterprises the opportunity to support business applications in a software as a service deployment.

  1. NoSQL database

This database is useful for a large set of distributed data. In other words, it is good and effective for big data performance issues. It is made for the problems that relational databases are not built to solve. It is even more effective when an organization analyzes the large chunks of unstructured data or the data which is stored across multiple virtual servers in the cloud.

  1. Object-oriented database

Object-oriented databases are well-suited for those items which are created using object-oriented programming languages. Instead of actions, this database is organized around objects and data instead of logics. Such as a multimedia record in a relational DB can be a data object, as opposed to an alphanumeric value.

  1. Graph database

A graph database is also termed as a “Graph-Oriented database”. It is a type of NoSQL database that uses graph theory for storing, mapping, and query relationships. A graph database is basically a collection of nodes and edges. Each node represents an entity. Each edge represents a connection between nodes.


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